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July 01, 2005

今日の通勤CD(バッハ・クリスマスオラトリオ)

バッハ・クリスマスオラトリオ/リヒター/ミュンヘン・バッハ管弦楽団・合唱団(ARCHIV 427 236-2)
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今日も子供が「CD選びたい」と言うので,「じゃあ,このへんから選んでよ」とバッハの棚を指示したらこれになった。長くて全部聴ききれないよ・・・。というわけで,アタマから順に聴く。(結局第3部まで)
このオラトリオはクリスマスから顕現節までの全6日のための6曲のカンタータ群。日本人のクリスマス観は12/24夜のクリスマス・イブがメインで,それ以外はないも同然だが,キリスト教では12/25の降誕節から1/6の顕現節までの期間がキリスト生誕を祝う期間だということがよくわかる。ちなみに第6部は東方の三博士が貢ぎ物を持ってくる話だが,幼稚園のクリスマス劇で博士の役をやったのが懐かしい。当時はよくわからなかったが,けっこう重要なエピソードだったのだなあ。
第1部はクリスマス第1日(12/25=降誕節)用。救主の誕生を喜び祝う。冒頭曲の原曲はザクセン選定公妃生誕祝賀カンタータ「太鼓よ轟け,ラッパよ響け」BWV214の冒頭曲の転用。トランペット,ティンパニが入り,キリストの生誕を祝う華やかな音楽。終曲(第9曲)も同編成によるコラール合唱。第8曲のバスのアリアもトランペットを伴い,全体に祝典的雰囲気に満ちたもの。こんな祝典的な内容だが,中心に据えられた第5曲は受難コラール。受難コラールはこのオラトリオの一番最後(第6部の終曲)にも現れ,キリスト生誕の意味(世の罪を一身に引き受けて十字架に架けられるために人の子として産まれた)を示すわけだが,このキリスト教の核心(キリストの受難こそ人間の贖罪)を,キリスト生誕を祝う第一部にこのコラールを置くことですでに予言しているわけだ。マタイ受難曲とは少し違った位置づけで響くこのコラールにグッときてしまうのは私だけではあるまい。
第2部はクリスマス第2日(12/26)用。天使から羊飼いに救主の誕生が告げられる。こちらは少し落ち着いた雰囲気の曲が並ぶ。飼い葉桶に眠るイエスへの子守歌であるアルトのアリア(第19曲)は特に印象深い。第2部ではフルートが天使の,オーボエが羊飼いの象徴として使われているようだ。以前ブラームスの第4交響曲1楽章について,「最初が心の問いと答えのかけ合いで,その後のオーボエは羊飼いの笛だから,迷える心を導いてくれるんだよ。」とkaorina。に言ったら「何言ってんの」と笑われたが,バッハがこういう使い方をしているのだから私の説もあながち間違いではあるまい,と思うのだ。後半では第21曲「いと高きところでは神に栄光あれ,地には平和あれ」の壮麗な合唱があり,第23曲のコラールで第2部を締めくくる。
第3部はクリスマス第3日(12/27)用。羊飼いが馬小屋に行き,救主に会う。冒頭合唱には再びトランペットが入り,祝典的雰囲気に。第26曲ではヴァイオリンの細かい動きが羊飼いの急ぐさまをよく表している。第29曲のデュエットは羊飼いの言葉がオーボエの伴奏で,第31曲アルトのアリアはマリアの心情がヴァイオリンの伴奏で,と器楽がステキなソロを担当する曲が並ぶ。第3部の終曲は冒頭合唱のダカーポ。これで生誕の物語が閉じられるあたり,非常にうまい作りだ。
リヒターの演奏は今となっては古いものといえ,演奏様式の違いやら,合唱団の性能やらが若干の違和感を感じさせるが,これはとても優れたものだ。やはり一家に一枚のアイテムだろう。

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